This Swiss study adds to evidence that the level of parental monitoring is linked to positive effects on adolescent substance use. The analysis of data from over 7,500 adolescents aged 13-16 found that with more parental monitoring the children consumed less tobacco, alcohol, ecstasy and cannabis, and were also less likely to have friends who used these substances. The higher levels of monitoring were found in families with younger female children, higher socio-economic status, intact family structure, and satisfactory relationships with mother, father and peers. The authors suggest that if parents are encouraged to monitor their children’s activities and friends then the negative influence of peers who use substances can be reduced. In line with other studies we have covered, less closely monitored children were found to have a higher proportion of friends who consumed these substances. One interesting study we covered previously showed that kids’ substance use may also be significantly influenced by their friends’ parents.
From the University of Montreal and New York’s Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, researchers have found that the users of cannabis amongst the teenage population are particularly at risk of developing addictive behaviors and suffering other long-term negative effects.
“Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientiﬁc data,” wrote Professor Didier Jutras-Aswad of the University of Montreal and Yasmin Hurd, MD, PhD, of Mount Sinai. “While it is clear that more systematic scientiﬁc studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching inﬂuence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals.”
Over 120 studies that looked at different aspects of the relationship between cannabis and the adolescent brain, including the biology of the brain, chemical reaction that occurs in the brain when the drug is used, the influence of genetics and environmental factors, in addition to studies into the “gateway drug” phenomenon. “Data from epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown an association between cannabis use and subsequent addiction to heavy drugs and psychosis (i.e. schizophrenia).
“It is now clear from the scientific data that cannabis is not harmless to the adolescent brain, specifically those who are most vulnerable from a genetic or psychological standpoint. Identifying these vulnerable adolescents, including through genetic or psychological screening, may be critical for prevention and early intervention of addiction and psychiatric disorders related to cannabis use. The objective is not to fuel the debate about whether cannabis is good or bad, but instead to identify those individuals who might most suffer from its deleterious effects and provide adequate measures to prevent this risk” Dr. Jutras-Aswad said.